Russia's athletics federation has been provisionally suspended from international competition - including the Olympic Games - for its alleged involvement in widespread doping.
The IAAF took action after the publication of an independent World Anti-Doping Agency (Wada) report that alleged "state-sponsored doping".
IAAF council members voted by 22-1 in favour of Russia being banned.
"This has been a shameful wake-up call," said IAAF president Lord Coe.
"The message could not be stronger.
"We are clear that cheating at any level will not be tolerated. The whole system has failed the athletes, not just in Russia, but around the world."
The suspension means athletes from Russia may not enter international competitions, including the World Athletic Series and Rio Olympics, which begin on 5 August next year.
Russia will also not be entitled to host the 2016 World Race Walking Cup in Cheboksary and the 2016 World Junior Championships in Kazan.
Former sprinter Frankie Fredericks, head of the IAAF athletes commission, added: "We are angry at the damage being caused to the reputation and credibility of athletics and are united alongside our president to not shy away from the major challenges that face our sport."
More to follow.