A learner driver has been arrested on suspicion of robbery and assault after his instructor was car-jacked in the middle of a lesson.
A row over payment reportedly broke out before the attack in Handsworth, Birmingham on Thursday, police said.
The learner stopped driving, punched the instructor, left but then returned to further punch and kick the 56-year-old before stealing the car.
A 22-year-old was arrested in Erdington at 06:00 BST.
Det Const Darren Wilkie said: "The learner demanded his car keys and then drove off in the car which was emblazoned with driving school livery. It was not an easy vehicle to conceal.
"It appears the man owed money for earlier lessons and, when the instructor asked for payment, his student responded aggressively."
The instructor suffered cuts and bruises and his Nissan Note has not yet been recovered.